Vasectomy is considered to be a low-risk procedure and complications are uncommon. It is important to note that vasectomy should be considered a permanent form of birth control although with advances in microsurgery reversal of vasectomy is fairly successful.
Mild bleeding is not uncommon and may appear as bruising under skin. Significant bleeding is uncommon and is generally associated with strenuous physical activity or straining after the the procedure. Although most such bleeding can be managed with ice packs, pressure and rest, occasionally it may require further surgery to drain the blood from the scrotum.
Mild soreness and pain is common after vasectomy.Such discomfort generally resolves after a few days. Rarely the patient may experience a dull ache in the testicles following vasectomy that may last for a long time. It is thought to be caused obstruction to epididymis, nerve entrapment in the vasectomy scars, inflammation and some other unexplained phenomenon. If this condition occurs, it usually disappears within six months. Very rarely it may last longer than six months and is commonly known as post vasectomy pain syndrome.
This uncommon condition occurs when the epididymis becomes inflamed (sometimes infected) and swollen. The use of anti-inflammatory medication and antibiotics usually clear this up within a week.
Failure and re canalization
Pregnancy may result if a couple continues to engage in unprotected sex during the waiting period till a semen analysis for absence of sperms is documented.
There is also one chance in 10 thousand that the cut ends of vas may rejoin, a process call re canalization. Such a phenomenon can occur in the early or later years of vasectomy.
Anti sperm antibodies
In the absence of vasectomy or trauma to testis, sperms never come in contact with blood circulation. Following vasectomy, body’s immune system may recognize the absorbed sperm cells as foreign proteins and produce antibodies in response. Two thirds of men develop anti-sperm antibodies at six months after vasectomy.
Current evidence indicates that this reaction generally is not harmful to body. According to the National Institutes of Health, no evidence has been found that vasectomized men were more likely than others to develop heart disease or any other immune illness. (NIH Publication Number 96-4094, April 1996)
Most Anti sperm antibodies are only discovered in the blood circulation only. Some how ever are found in the ejaculation and are attached to the surface of sperms. These antibodies can be a source of poor quality of sperms after the vasectomy reversal.
According to the National Institutes of Health, research that examined this issue found no evidence that vasectomized men were more likely than others to develop heart disease or any other immune illness. (NIH Publication Number 96-4094, April 1996)
Debate of Prostate Cancer
Initial studies looking at the risk factors of prostate cancer suggested that perhaps vasectomy was a possible risk factor. Many later studies produced conflicting results in the past. To answer this question, a major study involving over 2000 men was performed and reported in the Journal American Medical Association (JAMA 2002; 287:3110-3115). At present there is consensus that there is no increased risk of prostate cancer with vasectomy (NIH News Release).